Deprecated: mysql_connect(): The mysql extension is deprecated and will be removed in the future: use mysqli or PDO instead in /opt/wpiiasa.iiasa.ac.at/wordpress/wp-includes/wp-db.php on line 1578
Search results for "njoki" | nexus

Clean air beyond the 2008 Olympics in China?

By Caroline Njoki, IIASA Science Communication Fellow 2017

The Olympic Games creates a spectacle that enthralls the world every four years. Countries enter a competitive bidding process to select a new host, hoping to enhance their international image and attract tourism. Among many other preparations, the host nation commits to meeting recommended air quality standards to safeguard the health of athletes, visitors, and residents.

Studies indicate that air pollution can affect performance and compromise the health of those engaged in competitive sports and outdoor physical activities. Through his presentation at IIASA in July, Professor Tong Zhu from the College of Environmental Sciences and Engineering at Peking University expounded on health effects arising from a major air pollutant: particulate matter measuring 2.5 microns or less, known as PM2.5.

The Bird’s Nest Stadium, Beijing Olympics 2008 © rytc | flickr

PM2.5 is made up of fine particles smaller than human hair, pollen or mold. These tiny particles are released into the atmosphere from many sources: burning solid fuels and waste, wildfires, emissions from industry, vehicles, construction and mining, volcanic eruptions, and dust. ‘‘It is difficult to tackle particulate matter as its chemical composition changes when it mixes with other substances in the air. It can also be transported far from the different sources depending on weather conditions and topography,’’ said Zhu.

Once inhaled, the minute particles travel deep into the lungs and enter the bloodstream, leading to impaired brain, respiratory, and heart function. Lung cancer, stroke, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and lowered life expectancy are all associated with PM2.5 exposure. Taking part in oxygen-demanding physical activities such as long-distance races, jogging, and cycling requires breathing more through the mouth than nose. This increases the likelihood of inhaling harmful pollutants, especially in areas where concentrations are high.

Hosting international sport events such as the Olympics Games comes with commitment to improve air quality standards to safeguard the health of athletes, visitors, and residents © Pete Niesen | Shutterstock

China is a densely populated and industrialized country with coal as the main source of energy. Eighty-three percent of China’s population live in regions whose PM2.5 levels exceed World Health Organization’s guidelines, compared to 32% of the world population. Use of coal for domestic heating goes up during the winter, generating more particulate matter pollution indoors. In 2010, 1.2 million people died in China as a result of particulate matter pollution; it was the country’s fourth leading cause of death after diet, high blood pressure, and smoking. ‘‘Electricity would be a better option but is highly priced, hence the preference for biomass fuels by residents. Phasing out coal and switching to renewable energy and cleaner production technologies would greatly alleviate the problem,’’ said Zhu.

Zhu was involved in several initiatives to improve air quality in preparations for the 2008 Beijing Olympics. Measures included temporary relocations of more polluting industries and complete shutdown of coal plants, limiting construction projects, and transport restrictions. For instance, public transport and cycling was promoted to cut the number of vehicles on the road and reduce emissions.

Although short term, steps taken to reduce PM2.5 and other pollutants also benefited locals living in Beijing and adjacent cities that were selected as sporting and training venues. This meant fewer people seeking outpatient and inpatient medical services, and fewer deaths. The economy also benefited from a healthy labor force.

Professor Tong Zhu and Verena Rauchenwald from the Air Quality and Greenhouse Gases Program after the presentation on health effects of PM2.5 at IIASA © Caroline Njoki | IIASA

IIASA’s own work on air pollution spans 30 years, has shaped EU air pollution policy, and is now being applied to Asian countries including China. The IIASA Greenhouse Gas and Air Pollution Interactions and Synergies model enables countries to identify and select suitable cost-effective measures to tackle air pollution and reduce associated health problems.

The PM monitoring in China, which was initiated for the Olympic Games, using both satellite and ground-based observations, continues and has been expanded to cover more sites in the country. Information generated about air quality status is now distributed to concerned authorities to develop or reinforce regulatory measures. Air quality alerts enable residents know when it is safe to engage in outdoor activities or adopt safety measures.

China anticipates cleaner air from implementation of long-term policies and programs already in place. Investing in air quality means healthier people and alongside that, lively stadiums with athletes and cheering crowds, more medals, and world records.

References

Rich DQ, Kipen HW, Huang W, Wang G et al (2012). Association Between Changes in Air Pollution Levels During the Beijing Olympics and Biomarkers of Inflammation and Thrombosis in Healthy Young Adults. JAMA 307 (19): 2068-78

West JJ, Cohen A, Dentener W, Brunekreef B et al (2016). What We Breath Impacts Our Health: Improving Understanding of the Link Between Air Pollution and Health. Environmental Science and Technology 50: 4895-4904

Zhu T (2017). Health Effects of PM2.5 in China: Scientific Challenges and Policy Implications. Presentation by Professor Tong Zhu on 11 July 2017 at IIASA.

This article gives the views of the author, and not the position of the Nexus blog, nor of the International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis.

Interview: A community-based approach to managing human-wildlife conflicts

Ziyun Zhu is a PhD student at Peking University Centre for Nature and Society, and research assistant at the Shanshui Conservation Center, China. He is currently attending the IIASA Young Scientists Summer Program and talks to Science Communication Fellow 2017 Caroline Njoki about his current research on wildlife damage insurance schemes as a strategy to manage human-wildlife conflict.

What is your research about and what do you aim to achieve during your time at IIASA?
Wildlife insurance schemes compensate local people in case wild animals attack their livestock, or damage their crops or property, if a wolf kills a sheep, for instance. These schemes are a relatively new tool for mitigation of human-wildlife conflicts and there isn’t sufficient information on when this is the best option and where other tools may apply. My research is to clarify the different scenarios where insurance can work, based on existing insurance projects and other mitigation measures from other parts of the world. This will help improve insurance schemes for other areas.

Effective ways of managing human-wildlife conflicts are required to ensure survival of species such as the Snow leopard © Peter Wey | Shutterstock

Tell us more about the community wildlife insurance scheme?
The Tibetan Plateau contains unique wildlife including snow leopards, wolves, and Tibetan brown bears. The people living on the plateau keep yaks and sheep, and co-exist with wildlife. However, there are cases when interactions between people and carnivores result in conflict and disruption of people’s livelihoods, and may lead to retaliatory killing of wildlife.

A voluntary Community Wildlife Insurance Scheme, started by the non-governmental organization Shanshui Conservation Center in 2008, runs on premiums contributed by the members. This makes the scheme more self-sufficient than traditional government-funded compensation, which often lacks funding. The premium depends on type of animal (sheep or yak) and number they keep and also covers damage to their homes by bears. The validation process is also streamlined to ensure claims are paid out quickly.

Members meet annually to elect leaders to manage the pilot scheme, evaluate performance, and review the premiums in line with market trends. In consultation with the members, leaders determine the premium based on the market but also make them affordable. The members are also encouraged to put in place other mitigation measures.

A traditional tent made from yak wool. Tibetan people possess rich indigenous ecological knowledge © Lingyun Xiao

Herders have negative attitudes towards brown bears, yet bears attacking livestock is rare compared to other predators. Why is that?
The availability of pasture on the plateau is seasonal. Herders and their families lived in yak-wool tents until a government initiative to support them to build winter houses in the mid-1990s. When herders move from their winter to summer grounds, bears sometimes break into their mud brick houses, consume stored food, and damage property. The herders must then pay for repairs and replacements, hence the strong negative attitude towards bears. Working closely with local communities to raise awareness and develop suitable mitigation measures is key to promoting co-existence with wildlife.

 What are your highlights from working on the Tibetan Plateau?

Ziyun Zhu treasures sighting a snow leopard in the wild and his work in the Tibetan Plateau offers him an opportunity to connect with nature away from city life © Caroline Njoki | IIASA

During fieldwork to determine presence of the snow leopards on the plateau, which are very shy and elusive, one dashed from above the cave and disappeared in the rocks while we were placing camera traps. This was definitely a highlight for me. I also enjoy working with the people, who possess a rich indigenous ecological knowledge. My PhD aims to document this information and how it may contribute to conservation of Tibetan’s biodiversity. For instance, the collection of plants and hunting of animals are not allowed in certain areas designated as sacred or of high cultural importance. There is little human interference, leaving much of the area pristine.

This article gives the views of the interviewee, and not the position of the Nexus blog, nor of the International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis.

Reference

Juan Li, Hang Yin, Dajun Wang & Ziyun Zhi (2013). Human-snow leopard conflicts in the Sanjiangyuan Region of the Tibetan Plateau. Biological Conservation 166: 118-123.

Living to age five: Reducing deadly indoor air pollution in developing countries

By Caroline Njoki, IIASA Science Communication Fellow 2017

Child mortality is high in Nigeria. For every 1000 children born, 128 deaths occur, according to the 2013 Nigeria Demographic and Health Survey report. This is one of the highest rates in Sub-Saharan Africa.

Although the Nigerian government is working hard to change the story and ensure more children live to celebrate their fifth birthday, through schemes such as free maternal and child healthcare, indoor air pollution may hinder those efforts if not addressed, research has shown.

Solid fuels and the health of children and women

“Indoor air pollution can have a severe effect on children’s health. For example, pneumonia, a major contributor of under-five mortality, will be exacerbated,’’ says Samuel Olugbemisola, a participant in the Young Scientist Summer Program who is currently working on a project to determine just how many lives could be saved by replacing solid fuels with clean ones in Nigeria.

Indoor air pollution poses a serious health risk to children and women in developing countries © Svetlana Eremina | Shutterstock.com

It is a common practice, not only in Nigeria but in many African and Asian societies, to find mothers carrying young children on their backs as they go about domestic tasks in the home. Women are likely to spend most of their time in the kitchen cooking, washing dishes, and heating water for drinking or bathing.

Cooking in rural households is done on traditional stoves where cow dung, crop straw, charcoal, and firewood are used. The smoke contains many harmful tiny particles and substances. If taken in small quantities over a long duration, this interferes with the respiratory system and can cause other health problems. In Nigeria, 80% of children under five years live in homes where wood is the main fuel used.

A 2016 report from UN Children’s Fund links the use of these solid fuels to respiratory diseases such pneumonia, asthma, bronchitis, impaired cognitive development, and cataracts among children under five years, especially in developing countries. For children and women with already weak immune systems from malnutrition, HIV/AIDS, tuberculosis or other chronic diseases, long-term exposure from indoor air pollutants can worsen the conditions.

Exposure to indoor air pollution during pregnancy and delivery can mean miscarriage, low birth weight, or children with stunted growth. A study carried out in India also associated the likelihood of developing preeclampsia (elevated blood pressure) while pregnant with long-term exposure indoor air pollutants.

Olugbemisola, in her current IIASA study, is using the Greenhouse Gas-Air Pollution Interactions and Synergies model to estimate the number of children under five years that may be prevented from dying if cleaner fuels (such as electricity and gas) are adopted.  She hopes to share her findings with policymakers in energy and health sectors, especially in the areas severely affected by indoor air pollution and under-five mortality.

Tracing and addressing the problem

Income and wealth dictate the choice of fuel used in a household. Most rural households use solid fuel for cooking owing to their low income. In urban areas, where most people do have access to electricity, they may still rely on cheaper sources of energy such as charcoal and kerosene for cooking.

Making other cleaner forms of energy available and affordable is one way of reducing indoor air pollution (CC) Harsha K R

“Making electricity and gas available and affordable to households should be seriously prioritized by the government as a critical intervention to improve the situation. Currently, only 56% of households in Nigeria have access to electricity yet the country exports to neighboring countries such as Ghana and Benin,” says Olugbemisola.

Use of solid fuels is highest (at 98%) in the northeast region of the country, a survey by Nigeria’s National Bureau of Statistics revealed. This region also has high illiteracy, poverty, and rates of early child marriage. “Women with low or basic education lack adequate knowledge and information to enable them make informed choices as regards to maternal health, family planning, design or location of the kitchen including choice of cooking fuel”, says Olugbemisola.

She proposes innovative communication strategies to reach out to women, particularly in rural and remote areas with little or no education to raise awareness on the topic. The methods could include the use of performing arts, television and radio, and pamphlets prepared in vernacular languages to be made available at health facilities or distributed by community health workers.

Another area for improvement is the location and design of the kitchen. In most rural settings, the kitchen is either part of the main house or built separately but urban populations living in informal settlements usually occupy one room that doubles up as the sleeping and kitchen area. Poor ventilation traps the smoke and increases the concentration of tiny particles. Pollution could be reduced by installing chimneys, switching to improved cooking stoves and better ventilation to allow clear air to circulate in the kitchen.

Successful development and implementation of these interventions will help to see more children living to celebrate their fifth birthday.

References

Agrawal S & Yamamoto S. (2015). Effect of indoor air pollution from biomass and solid fuel combustion on symptoms of preeclampsia/eclampsia in Indian women. Indoor Air 25: 341-352

Samuel Gbemisola W. (2016). Underlying and Proximate Determinants of Under-five Mortality in Nigeria: Understanding the Pathways of Influence. Covenant University, Nigeria. PhD Thesis.

Samuel Gbemisola W, Ajayi Mofoluwake P, Odowu E & Ogundipe Oluwatomisin M (2016). Levels and Trends in Household Source of Cooking Fuel in Nigeria: Implications on Under-five Mortality. Health Science Journal 10:4

This article gives the views of the author, and not the position of the Nexus blog, nor of the International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis.